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I too got all the answers same.. but i am still confused with the 4th question...
Originally Posted by joyan123
"First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses, they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them. If, thereafter, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses. " does this mean to say that its the small firms which are eating up the business of big firms.... HOPE i am correct...
Originally Posted by mukulbudania
Firstly, I have some doubts on the answer option A for 4th question which says "experience frustration but not serious financial harm". But there is clear mention in the passage of words like "potentially crippling fixed expenses" and "morale and the financial health of the business will suffer". PLease explain.
According to me the "small firms which are eating up the business of big firms" viewpoint is not what the author tries to convey here. This particular paragraph in the passage tries to say that to deliver the contracts, initial investment for set-up is significant. This is the fixed cost that the small companies are bound to arrange for. But later if the contract dries down the company will have to bear the burden of the investment. The big companies can afford for such capital easily. So the question of eating other's business does not seem correct to me.....Every other viewpoint is welcome...
Please find the answers along with the explanation from the source where I got the passage:
Originally Posted by joyan123
1) Correct Choice: (A)
Choice (A) is the credited choice. The "business decisions"
first discussed in paragraph 2 are at the core of journalistic
bias, affecting decisions made as described in paragraph 3.
Choice (B) is a distortion of facts relevant only to paragraph
2. Choice (C) distorts the discussion found only in paragraph
3. Choice (D) refers to paragraph 4 only. Choice (E) is
outside the scope of this passage, which never deals with ways
to avoid these biases; in fact, the author's main idea is that
these biases can't be avoided.
2) Correct Choice: (C)
"Progressivist" ideas are mentioned in paragraph 3, but we
must be careful to note the context of this reference. We are
told in the first paragraph that simple bias for a particular
party isn't at the root of journalism's biases, and in the
second that what does shape journalism is a preference for a
good, simple story. So the author isn't saying that
journalists are likely to adhere to Progressivist (or any
other particular party's) dictates, as statement I says.
Statement II is outside the scope; whether or not any biases
are "masked" successfully is never discussed here. Statement
III effectively restates the nature of the structural biases
discussed in the passage.
3) Correct Choice: (C)
Generally, the author does not offer any opinions about
politics or campaign finance in this passage, only about the
nature of journalism, so only choice (C) can be correct. In
the second half of the third paragraph, PACs are called "the
embodiments of vested, selfish interests" in connection with
campaign finance, but don't confuse that with a general
statement about campaign finance itself. Choices (A) and (B)
suggest the views of the "Progressive muckrakers" in paragraph
3, not of the author. Choice (D) seems to be a distorted
reference to irrelevant language in the first paragraph:
"There is no singling out of Democrats or Republicans". Choice
(E) is another distortion; it might be correct if the question
were about journalism, rather than about campaign finance.
4) Correct Choice: (B)
We must look at the last paragraph, where this "conundrum"
appears. Reading for context shows us that the author doesn't
know whether publishing decisions are made because
journalistic biases have preconditioned the audience to accept
certain stories, or whether they simply believe they are
printing the "truth": Choice (B) captures the essence of the
problem. Choice (A) is an extreme misinterpretation of
paragraph 3, not relevant to the question. Choice (C)
misstates the author's points; these two forms of bias are
never described as "conflicting". Choice (D) joins ideas from
paragraphs 2 (readers' preferences) and 3 (Progressivist
ideas) into a distorted version of the passage's ideas. Choice
(E) is a detail from paragraph 2, not relevant to the
conundrum in paragraph 4.
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Woodrow Wilson was referring to the liberal idea of the economic market when he said that the free enterprise system is the most efficient economic system. Maximum freedom means maximum productiveness; our “openness” is to be the measure of our stability. Fascination with this ideal has made Americans defy the “Old World” categories of settled possessiveness versus unsettling deprivation, the cupidity of retention versus the cupidity of seizure, a “status quo” defended or attacked. The United States, it was believed, had no status quo ante. Our only “station” was the turning of a stationary wheel, spinning faster and faster. We did not base our system on property but opportunity—which meant we based it not on stability but on mobility. The more things changed, that is, the more rapidly the wheel turned, the steadier we would be. The conventional picture of class politics is composed of the Haves, who want a stability to keep what they have, and the Have-Nots, who want a touch of instability and change in which to scramble for the things they have not. But Americans imagined a condition in which speculators, self-makers, runners are always using the new opportunities given by our land. These economic leaders (front-runners) would thus be mainly agents of change. The nonstarters were considered the ones who wanted stability, a strong referee to give them some position in the race, a regulative hand to calm manic speculation; an authority that can call things to a halt, begin things again from compensatorily staggered “starting lines.”
“Reform” in America has been sterile because it can imagine no change except through the extension of this metaphor of a race, wider inclusion of competitors, “a piece of the action,” as it were, for the disenfranchised. There is no attempt to call off the race. Since our only stability is change, America seems not to honor the quiet work that achieves social interdependence and stability. There is, in our legends, no heroism of the office clerk, no stable industrial work force of the people who actually make the system work. There is no pride in being an employee (Wilson asked for a return to the time when everyone was an employer). There has been no boasting about our social workers—they are merely signs of the system’s failure, of opportunity denied or not taken, of things to be eliminated. We have no pride in our growing interdependence, in the fact that our system can serve others, that we are able to help those in need; empty boasts from the past make us ashamed of our present achievements, make us try to forget or deny them, move away from them. There is no honor but in the Wonderland race we must all run, all trying to win, none winning in the end (for there is no end).
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) criticize the inflexibility of American economic mythology
(B) contrast “Old World” and “New World” economic ideologies
(C) challenge the integrity of traditional political leaders
(D) champion those Americans whom the author deems to be neglected
(E) suggest a substitute for the traditional metaphor of a race
2. According to the passage, “Old World” values were based on
(C) family connections
(D) guild hierarchies
3. In the context of the author’s discussion of regulating change, which of the following could be most probably regarded as a “strong referee” (line 30) in the United States?
(A) A school principal
(B) A political theorist
(C) A federal court judge
(D) A social worker
(E) A government inspector
4. The author sets off the word “Reform” (line 35) with quotation marks in order to
(A) emphasize its departure from the concept of settled possessiveness
(B) show his support for a systematic program of change
(C) underscore the flexibility and even amorphousness of United States society
(D) indicate that the term was one of Wilson’s favorites
(E) assert that reform in the United States has not been fundamental
5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author most probably thinks that giving the disenfranchised “a piece of the action” (line 38) is
(A) a compassionate, if misdirected, legislative measure
(B) an example of Americans’ resistance to profound social change
(C) an innovative program for genuine social reform
(D) a monument to the efforts of industrial reformers
(E) a surprisingly “Old World” remedy for social ills
6. Which of the following metaphors could the author most appropriately use to summarize his own assessment of the American economic system (lines 35-60)?
(A) A windmill
(B) A waterfall
(C) A treadmill
(D) A gyroscope
(E) A bellows
7. It can be inferred from the passage that Woodrow Wilson’s ideas about the economic market
(A) encouraged those who “make the system work” (lines 45-46)
(B) perpetuated traditional legends about America
(C) revealed the prejudices of a man born wealthy
(D) foreshadowed the stock market crash of 1929
(E) began a tradition of presidential proclamations on economics
8. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions?
I. What techniques have industrialists used to manipulate a free market?
II. In what ways are “New World” and “Old World” economic policies similar?
III. Has economic policy in the United States tended to reward independent action?
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) II and III only
9. Which of the following best expresses the author’s main point?
(A) Americans’ pride in their jobs continues to give them stamina today.
(B) The absence of a status quo ante has undermined United States economic structure.
(C) The free enterprise system has been only a useless concept in the United States.
(D) The myth of the American free enterprise system is seriously flawed.
(E) Fascination with the ideal of “openness” has made Americans a progressive people.
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approximate time taken - 16-17 min ( Think it is on the higher side )
Approach taken - I found the passage to be of on the higher side of difficulty level.
So, I read the whole passage first to find the Topic and Purpose of the passage. I concentrated on the idea that the author is trying to convey instead of the details. Then I scanned the questions with the main idea in mind to arrive at the answers.
The answer options as per me with explanations:
1 (A) - The tone of the passage is "criticizing" with the author in the latter half of the passage suggesting the lack of respect to people who actually make the system work
2 (B) - Its a detailed level question and the answer can be found clearly in the 6th line of the passage
3 (C) - The idea is that the non-starters are those who want "authorities" so that the rapid pace of change can be halted. This clearly can be done by law and "A federal court judge" is the one.
4 (E) - "sterile" is the keyword which suggests "reform in the United States has not been fundamental"
6 (A) - windmill most approriately represents the wheel of change, which generates more power as fast as it rotates
7 (B) - Mentioned in the latter part of the passage. Also other options look not sot appropriate.
9 (B) - (B),(D) appear to be correct options, but (B) wins because it points out why present enterprise system is seriously flawed.
My sincere apologies for not posting the solution/passage earlier. Wasn't keeping well since the past 3 days...
Anyway, here's the key for the previous passage:
Here's the next passage:
No very satisfactory account of the mechanism that caused the formation of the ocean basins has yet been given. The traditional view supposes that the upper mantle of the earth behaves as a liquid when it is subjected to small forces for long periods and that differences in temperature under oceans and continents are sufficient to produce convection in the mantle of the earth with rising convection currents under the mid-ocean ridges and sinking currents under the continents. Theoretically, this convection would carry the continental plates along as though they were on a conveyor belt and would provide the forces needed to produce the split that occurs along the ridge. This view may be correct: it has the advantage that the currents are driven by temperature differences that themselves depend on the position of the continents. Such a back-coupling, in which the position of the moving plate has an impact on the forces that move it, could produce complicated and varying motions.
On the other hand, the theory is implausible because convection does not normally occur along lines, and it certainly does not occur along lines broken by frequent offsets or changes in direction, as the ridge is. Also it is difficult to see how the theory applies to the plate between the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the ridge in the Indian Ocean. This plate is growing on both sides, and since there is no intermediate trench, the two ridges must be moving apart. It would be odd if the rising convection currents kept exact pace with them. An alternative theory is that the sinking part of the plate, which is denser than the hotter surrounding mantle, pulls the rest of the plate after it. Again it is difficult to see how this applies to the ridge in the South Atlantic, where neither the African nor the American plate has a sinking part.
Another possibility is that the sinking plate cools the neighboring mantle and produces convection currents that move the plates. This last theory is attractive because it gives some hope of explaining the enclosed seas, such as the Sea of Japan. These seas have a typical oceanic floor, except that the floor is overlaid by several kilometers of sediment. Their floors have probably been sinking for long periods. It seems possible that a sinking current of cooled mantle material on the upper side of the plate might be the cause of such deep basins. The enclosed seas are an important feature of the earth’s surface, and seriously require explanation because, in addition to the enclosed seas that are developing at present behind island arcs, there are a number of older ones of possibly similar origin, such as the Gulf of Mexico, the Black Sea, and perhaps the North Sea.
1. According to the traditional view of the origin of the ocean basins, which of the following is sufficient to move the continental plates?
(A) Increases in sedimentation on ocean floors
(B) Spreading of ocean trenches
(C) Movement of mid-ocean ridges
(D) Sinking of ocean basins
(E) Differences in temperature under oceans and continents
2. It can be inferred from the passage that, of the following, the deepest sediments would be found in the
(A) Indian Ocean
(B) Black Sea
(D) South Atlantic
3. The author refers to a “conveyor belt” in line 13 in order to
(A) illustrate the effects of convection in the mantle
(B) show how temperature differences depend on the positions of the continents
(C) demonstrate the linear nature of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
(D) describe the complicated motions made possible by back-coupling
(E) account for the rising currents under certain mid-ocean ridges
3. The author regards the traditional view of the origin of the oceans with
(A) slight apprehension
(B) absolute indifference
(C) indignant anger
(D) complete disbelief
(E) guarded skepticism
4. According to the passage, which of the following are separated by a plate that is growing on both sides?
(A) The Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan
(B) The South Atlantic Ridge and the North Sea Ridge
(C) The Gulf of Mexico and the South Atlantic Ridge
(D) The Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Indian Ocean Ridge
(E) The Black Sea and the Sea of Japan
5. Which of the following, if it could be demonstrated, would most support the traditional view of ocean formation?
(A) Convection usually occurs along lines.
(B) The upper mantle behaves as a dense solid.
(C) Sedimentation occurs at a constant rate.
(D) Sinking plates cool the mantle.
(E) Island arcs surround enclosed seas.
6. According to the passage, the floor of the Black Sea can best be compared to a
(A) rapidly moving conveyor belt
(B) slowly settling foundation
(C) rapidly expanding balloon
(D) violently erupting volcano
(E) slowly eroding mountain
7. Which of the following titles would best describe the content of the passage?
(A) A Description of the Oceans of the World
(B) Several Theories of Ocean Basin Formation
(C) The Traditional View of the Oceans
(D) Convection and Ocean Currents
(E) Temperature Differences among the Oceans of the World
no1 up for the passage today?!? :-S
Apoorv...posting my solutions of the passage
Guys.......we need more viewpoints...so pour in with your solutions. Lets discuss among ourselves to reach the correct answers....
Originally Posted by joyan123
I am going to post a passage tomorrow.....right now stuck with work...
Try this one and also plzz post answers of previous passage:
Historian sometimes forget that history is continually being made and experienced before it is studied,interpreted, and read. These latter activities have their own history, of course, which may impinge in unexpected ways on public events.It is difficult to predict when "new pasts" will overturn establised historical interpretations and change the course of history.
In the fall of 1954, for example, C.Vann Woodward delivered a lecture series at the University of Virginia that challenged the prevailing dogma concerning the history, continuity, and uniformity of racial segregation in the South. He argued that the Jim Crows laws of te late nineteent and early twentieth centuries not only codified traditional practice but also were a determined effort to erase the considerable progress made by the black people during and after Reconstruction in the 1870's. This revisionist view of
Jim Crow legislation grew in part from the research that Woodward had done for the NAACP legal campaign during its preparation for Brown V. Board of Education. The Supreme Court had issued its ruling in this epochal desegregation case a few months before Woodward's lectures.
The lectures were soon published as a book, The Strange Career of Jim Crow. Ten years later, in a preface to the second revised edition, Woodward confessed with ironic modesty that the first edition "had begun to suffer under some of the handicaps that might be expected in a history of the American Revolution published in 1776." That was a bit like hearing Thomas Paine apologize for the timing ofhis pamphlet Common Sense, which had a comparable impact. Although Common Sense also had a mass readership, Paine had intended to reach and inspire: he was not a historian, and thus not concerned with the accuracy or dangers of historical anachronism. Yet, like Paine, Woodward had an unerring sense of the revolutionary moment, and of how historical evidence could undermine the mythological tradition that was crushing the dreams of new social possibilities. Martin Luther King Jr. testified to the profound effect of The Strange Career of Jim Crow on the civil rights movement by praising the book and quoting it frequently.
1). The "new past" desscribed can best be described as the
(A) occurence of events extremely similar to past events
(B) history of activities of studying, interpreting, and reading new historical writing
(C) change in people's understanding of the past due to more recent historical writing
(D) overturning of established historical interpretations by politically motivated politicians
(E) difficulty of predicting when a given historical interpretation will be overturned
2). It can be inferred from the passage that the "prevailing dogma" held that
(A) Jim Crow laws were passed to give legal status to well-established discriminatory practiices of the South
(B) Jim Crow laws were passed to establish order and uniformity in the discriminatory practices of different southern states
(C) Jim Crow laws were passed to erase the social gains that black people had acieved since reconstruction
(D) the continuity of racial segregation in the South was disrupted by passage of Jim Crow laws
(E) the Jim Crow laws of the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century were passed to reverse the effect of earlier Jim Crow laws
3). Which of the following is the best example of the writing that is likely to be subject to the kinds of "handicap" referred in the passage ?
(A) A history of an auto manufacturing plant written by an employee during an auto buying boom
(B) A critique of a statewide school-desegragation plan written by an elementary school teacher in that state
(C) A newspaper article assessing the historical importance of a United States president shortly after the president has taken office
(D) A scientific paper describing the benefits of a certain surgical technique written by a surgeon who developed the tecnique
(E) Diary entries narrating the events of a battle written by a soldier who participated in the battle
4). The passage suggests that C. Van Woodward and Thomas Paine were similar in all of te following EXCEPT
(A) both had works published in the midst of important istorical events
(B) both wrote works that enjoyed widespread historical popularity
(C) both exhibited an understanding of the relevance of historical evidence to contmporary issues
(D) the works of both had a significant effect on events following their publication
(E) both were able to set aside worries about historical anachronism in order to reach and inspire
5). The attitude of the author of the passage towards the work of C. Van Woodward is best described as one of
(A) respectful regard
(B) qualified approbation
(C) implied skepticism
(D) pointed criticism
(E) fervent advocacy
6). Which of the following best describes the new idea expressed by C. Vann Woodward in his University of Virginia lectures in 1954 ?
(A) Southern racial segregation was continuous and uniform
(B) Black people made considerable progress only after Reconstruction
(C) Jim Crow legislation was conventional in nature
(D) Jim Crow laws did not go as far in codifying traditional practice as they might have
(E) Jim Crow laws did much more than merely reinforce a tradition of segregation
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1. (E) Clearly evident from Para1.
2. (B) Black Sea("such deep basins". Same theory is applied on Black Sea too.)
3. (A) Conveyor belt certainly describes motion of the ridges caused by convention currents...So option B,E are certainly false.Convection currents cant explain Mid - Atlantic ridge thus. C also is wrong... By saying the motion of "conveyor belt" the author perfectly describes the motion so option D is also ruled out.
4. (E) Since the author is in a state of doubt since all the theories are so different in them....
5. (D) As written in the passage by Theory 2
6. (B) Certainly the process is slow so option B n E r the only options left...
Certainly basins are formed by settling of sediments only not by eroding of mountains.... (Geography mein pada tha...)
7. (B) no doubt in that....
1 - c
Originally Posted by joyan123
2 - c
3 _ d
4 - e
5 - a
6 - e
My answers in red ..
Originally Posted by apoorv.sharma
thanks for the rc
1 - e
Originally Posted by apoorv.sharma
2 - b
3 - a
3 - e
4 - d
5 - a
6 - b
7 - b
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ooppss.... !!! i missed on the 6th question.....
@joyan: post the key for yesterday's passage.
Meanwhile, here's today's passage:
The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were—reptiles or birds—are among the questions scientists have puzzled over.
Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles. Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian. The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds. In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing-like membrane. The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws. In birds the second finger is the principal strut of the wing, which consists primarily of feathers. If the pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers may have been employed for grasping. When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body.
The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions. This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a savings in weight. In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.
Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats. T. H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm-blooded because flying implies a high rate of metabolism, which in turn implies a high internal temperature. Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight. The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidence that his reasoning was correct.
Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became airborne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves. Each hypothesis has its difficulties. The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaurs’ hind feet resembled a bat’s and could serve as hooks by which the animal could hang in preparation for flight. The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings. The third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the
(A) enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enabled them to fly great distances
(B) structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs suggests a close evolutionary relationship to bats
(C) fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they solved the problem of powered flight
(D) pterosaurs were reptiles
(E) pterosaurs walked on all fours
2. The author views the idea that the pterosaurs became airborne by rising into light winds created by waves as
3. According to the passage, the skeleton of a pterosaur can be distinguished from that of a bird by the
(A) size of its wingspan
(B) presence of hollow spaces in its bones
(C) anatomic origin of its wing strut
(D) presence of hooklike projections on its hind feet
(E) location of the shoulder joint joining the wing to its body
4. The ideas attributed to T. H. Huxley in the passage suggest that he would most likely agree with which of the following statements?
(A) An animal’s brain size has little bearing on its ability to master complex behaviors.
(B) An animal’s appearance is often influenced by environmental requirements and physical capabilities.
(C) Animals within a given family group are unlikely to change their appearance dramatically over a period of time.
(D) The origin of flight in vertebrates was an accidental development rather than the outcome of specialization or adaptation.
(E) The pterosaurs should be classified as birds, not reptiles.
5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?
(A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.
(B) They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight.
(C) They flew in order to capture prey.
(D) They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds.
(E) They lived primarily in a forest-like habitat.
6. Which of the following best describes the organization of the last paragraph of the passage?
(A) New evidence is introduced to support a traditional point of view.
(B) Three explanations for a phenomenon are presented, and each is disputed by means of specific information.
(C) Three hypotheses are outlined, and evidence supporting each is given.
(D) Recent discoveries are described, and their implications for future study are projected.
(E) A summary of the material in the preceding paragraphs is presented, and conclusions are drawn.
7. It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs
(A) lived near large bodies of water
(B) had sharp teeth for tearing food
(C) were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles
(D) had longer tails than many birds
(E) consumed twice their weight daily to maintain their body temperature
Posting the correct answer keys:
Originally Posted by joyan123
My take for this passage:
Originally Posted by apoorv.sharma
Will post the explanations after others post their answers
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