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Thread: A RC passage a day

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    Quote Originally Posted by apoorv.sharma View Post
    @joyan: post the key for yesterday's passage.

    Meanwhile, here's today's passage:

    The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were—reptiles or birds—are among the questions scientists have puzzled over.
    Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles. Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian. The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds. In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing-like membrane. The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws. In birds the second finger is the principal strut of the wing, which consists primarily of feathers. If the pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers may have been employed for grasping. When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body.
    The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions. This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a savings in weight. In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.
    Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats. T. H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm-blooded because flying implies a high rate of metabolism, which in turn implies a high internal temperature. Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight. The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidence that his reasoning was correct.
    Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became airborne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves. Each hypothesis has its difficulties. The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaurs’ hind feet resembled a bat’s and could serve as hooks by which the animal could hang in preparation for flight. The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings. The third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.

    1. It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the
    (A) enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enabled them to fly great distances
    (B) structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs suggests a close evolutionary relationship to bats
    (C) fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they solved the problem of powered flight
    (D) pterosaurs were reptiles
    (E) pterosaurs walked on all fours

    2. The author views the idea that the pterosaurs became airborne by rising into light winds created by waves as
    (A) revolutionary
    (B) unlikely
    (C) unassailable
    (D) probable
    (E) outdated

    3. According to the passage, the skeleton of a pterosaur can be distinguished from that of a bird by the
    (A) size of its wingspan
    (B) presence of hollow spaces in its bones
    (C) anatomic origin of its wing strut
    (D) presence of hooklike projections on its hind feet
    (E) location of the shoulder joint joining the wing to its body

    4. The ideas attributed to T. H. Huxley in the passage suggest that he would most likely agree with which of the following statements?
    (A) An animal’s brain size has little bearing on its ability to master complex behaviors.
    (B) An animal’s appearance is often influenced by environmental requirements and physical capabilities.
    (C) Animals within a given family group are unlikely to change their appearance dramatically over a period of time.
    (D) The origin of flight in vertebrates was an accidental development rather than the outcome of specialization or adaptation.
    (E) The pterosaurs should be classified as birds, not reptiles.

    5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?
    (A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.
    (B) They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight.
    (C) They flew in order to capture prey.
    (D) They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds.
    (E) They lived primarily in a forest-like habitat.

    6. Which of the following best describes the organization of the last paragraph of the passage?
    (A) New evidence is introduced to support a traditional point of view.
    (B) Three explanations for a phenomenon are presented, and each is disputed by means of specific information.
    (C) Three hypotheses are outlined, and evidence supporting each is given.
    (D) Recent discoveries are described, and their implications for future study are projected.
    (E) A summary of the material in the preceding paragraphs is presented, and conclusions are drawn.

    7. It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs
    (A) lived near large bodies of water
    (B) had sharp teeth for tearing food
    (C) were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles
    (D) had longer tails than many birds
    (E) consumed twice their weight daily to maintain their body temperature
    my answers:
    1.D
    2.B
    3.C
    4.B
    5.A
    6.B
    7.D

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    Quote Originally Posted by apoorv.sharma View Post
    @joyan: post the key for yesterday's passage.

    Meanwhile, here's today's passage:

    The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were—reptiles or birds—are among the questions scientists have puzzled over.
    Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles. Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian. The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds. In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing-like membrane. The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws. In birds the second finger is the principal strut of the wing, which consists primarily of feathers. If the pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers may have been employed for grasping. When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body.
    The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions. This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a savings in weight. In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.
    Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats. T. H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm-blooded because flying implies a high rate of metabolism, which in turn implies a high internal temperature. Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight. The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidence that his reasoning was correct.
    Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became airborne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves. Each hypothesis has its difficulties. The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaurs’ hind feet resembled a bat’s and could serve as hooks by which the animal could hang in preparation for flight. The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings. The third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.

    1. It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the
    (A) enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enabled them to fly great distances
    (B) structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs suggests a close evolutionary relationship to bats
    (C) fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they solved the problem of powered flight
    (D) pterosaurs were reptiles
    (E) pterosaurs walked on all fours

    2. The author views the idea that the pterosaurs became airborne by rising into light winds created by waves as
    (A) revolutionary
    (B) unlikely
    (C) unassailable
    (D) probable
    (E) outdated

    3. According to the passage, the skeleton of a pterosaur can be distinguished from that of a bird by the
    (A) size of its wingspan
    (B) presence of hollow spaces in its bones
    (C) anatomic origin of its wing strut
    (D) presence of hooklike projections on its hind feet
    (E) location of the shoulder joint joining the wing to its body

    4. The ideas attributed to T. H. Huxley in the passage suggest that he would most likely agree with which of the following statements?
    (A) An animal’s brain size has little bearing on its ability to master complex behaviors.
    (B) An animal’s appearance is often influenced by environmental requirements and physical capabilities.
    (C) Animals within a given family group are unlikely to change their appearance dramatically over a period of time.
    (D) The origin of flight in vertebrates was an accidental development rather than the outcome of specialization or adaptation.
    (E) The pterosaurs should be classified as birds, not reptiles.

    5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?
    (A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.
    (B) They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight.
    (C) They flew in order to capture prey.
    (D) They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds.
    (E) They lived primarily in a forest-like habitat.

    6. Which of the following best describes the organization of the last paragraph of the passage?
    (A) New evidence is introduced to support a traditional point of view.
    (B) Three explanations for a phenomenon are presented, and each is disputed by means of specific information.
    (C) Three hypotheses are outlined, and evidence supporting each is given.
    (D) Recent discoveries are described, and their implications for future study are projected.
    (E) A summary of the material in the preceding paragraphs is presented, and conclusions are drawn.

    7. It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs
    (A) lived near large bodies of water
    (B) had sharp teeth for tearing food
    (C) were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles
    (D) had longer tails than many birds
    (E) consumed twice their weight daily to maintain their body temperature
    Guyz This is an wonderful initiative .. My verbal is quite weak .. I believe RC is something which if u can master can really soar ur verbal scores.

    My answers
    1.D
    2.B
    3.C
    4.C
    5.D
    6.B
    7.D

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    Quote Originally Posted by apoorv.sharma View Post
    @joyan: post the key for yesterday's passage.

    Meanwhile, here's today's passage:

    The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were—reptiles or birds—are among the questions scientists have puzzled over.
    1. d
    2. b
    3. c
    4. b
    5. a
    6. b
    7. d

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    Please post the answers to yesterday's passage.

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    Here's one from my side :

    No one can deny the fact that the Indian Institute of Technology Madras is one of the most prominent professional colleges in Asia awarding an engineering degree. It is set in a reserve forest and its green lans and beautiful scenery is captivating. A nature lover like William Wordsworth would have written many paeans if he had visited the charming site. It has one of the best pools in Chennai and is immune to the quota crunch. However, for other Indian Institutes of Technology, the quota conundrum continues to have a nightmarish impact on the quality learning. For the country’s seven IITs, including Madras, that have pioneered the country’s brand growth and strength, there seems no respite from the already acute battle to maintain standards of excellence in the face of acute faculty shortage. Where leading foreign technical colleges offer a 1 : 6 faculty student ratio, most IITs just manage to maintain a 1 : 12 ratio, while struggling to cope up with attrition syndrome and find quality faculty. The Dean of IIT Madras, Prof V.G. Idichandy, in a recent interview, admitted that it was hard to maintain even a 1: 14 ratio due the paucity of faculty. Interestingly, not many people today opt for teaching, as the compensatory package stands nowhere in comparison not only to that in the western world, but also to what falls into the kitty of those in India who look for openings in the business world. Moreover, the selection procedure as stipulated by the UGC is stringent. Ironically, the sylvan surroundings of most IITs are fast turning into concrete jungles when students want to explore greener pastures abroad. IIT–Kanpur, which has a 1: 14 faculty student ratio, recently mooted a proposal to hire teachers from the European Union. However, this proposal is presently buried in the jungle of files, as no positive response is forthcoming from the government, though relentless efforts are being made by the Deans and the Directors of the IITs to attract young and talented NRIs serving in foreign universities to work in the Indian Institutes of Technology. The faculty members who attend international conferences and seminars are directed to identify innovative young students willing to teach in India. What a paradoxical situation! The young graduates of IITs are going abroad on a heavy pay package and the Directors of IITs are looking for teachers from abroad. IIT-Bombay Director Misra shakes his head in horror as he recounts the woes of his faculty. IITBombay functions with a teacher student ratio of 1: 12, while an ideal as per the HRD ministry stipulation is 1: 9 ratio. The other alarming fact is that many faculty members retire each year, as the retiring age is not being increased in spite of memos submitted to the government.

    Several senior IIT faculty members opine that teaching in the present set up is a difficult task. With a monthly salary of Rs. 30,000 and a Rs. 500 annual increment for learned professors, it is hardly a wonder that these portals of education should be gasping for quality teachers. It is pertinent to note that an average IIT graduate gets a much better pay package in the job market than drawn by the IIT Director. No wonder, only a sprinkling of students go through the rigorous route of doctorates, fellowships to join IIT as faculty members. Teacher salaries in EU and US are at least 20 to 25 times those of IIT teachers. The lucrative offers from the corporate sector are a lead to faculty shortage in the IITs. The central government has stipulated the salary structure and it is extremely tortuous to recruit faculty from abroad. To avert these crises, some institutes have started offering emeritus positions to its retired faculty. The crisis will further escalate with the implementation of the 27% OBC reservation, as there will be an additional rush of students to all the IITs. More teachers are required to cater to the new intake and the liquidity crunch is hampering the ongoing research work in these IITs.

    In 1990, Illinois Institute of Technology was crumbling; close to insolvency. The school sent out an SOS to its alumni and in five years $270 million were contributed to save the school. Harvard and Princeton have also built multi-million dollar endowments for research and survival. Unfortunately the IIT’s have no US-style Alumni Relations Department. It is the right time for the alumni to donate to their alma mater. Mr. Sarin donated Rs. 1.5 crore, NRI tycoon Mr. Vindo Gupta sent $4 million, Infosys mentor Narayana Murthy has donated Rs. 25 crore to IIT Kanpur. There philanthropic acts will go a long way to save the IITs. Otherwise the future is dismal.

    What does the phrase ‘the sylvan surroundings of most IITs are fast turning into concrete jungles’ mean
    in context of the passage?

    a. The growing pollution in and around IITs.
    b. The shortage of students in IITs.
    c. The shortage of faculty in IITs.
    d. The lack of maintenance of green environment.
    e. The students seeking greener pastures abroad.

    What most easily describes the organization of the passage?

    a. The passage rues the absence of a support mechanism for a cause and discusses why nothing much is expected in view of the presence of certain variables
    b. The author uses a study to put forth his own argument.
    c. The passage paints a dismal picture of the future of certain institutes of excellence and uses evidence to prove the point.
    d. The passage expresses apprehensions based on clinching evidence showing symptoms of a malady.
    e. The author presents various facets of a problem without any conclusion

    The author cities the example of alumni of IIT US in order to

    a. save the IITs from closure and accelerate their pace of research
    b. emphasise the need for two way interactive and mutually beneficial exchange between the alumni and the alma mater
    c. suggest an alternative to tide over the liquidity crunch faced by the institutes
    d. prove that all alumni have a moral responsibility to contribute to the development and survival of their alma mater.
    e. highlight the philanthropic achievements of the alumni in USA.

    What can be best inferred from the passage about the working of Indian institutes of Technology?

    a. The prominent Institutes of Technology are maintaining the standards of excellence though the odds are heavily stacked against them.
    b. The Deans and the Directors of IITs are exhorting the members of the faculty to attend international conferences and seminars and be on the lookout for new talent willing to take the plunge into the field of education.
    c. The young and talented Non Resident Indians employed in foreign universities are being inspired to return to India to work in the IITs.
    d. The Indian Institutes of Technology have started employing superannuated teachers to meet the crisis of growing shortage of teachers.
    e. The IITs are bound to find it difficult to maintain the standards of excellence as the faculty student ratio has declined to 1: 14 with the senior teachers retiring every year and new quota regime of OBC likely to increase the intake of students.

    Which of the following best illustrates the situation that is equivalent to closing of the Indian Institutes of technology?

    a. The IITs are desperately struggling to maintain standards of excellence in spite of liquidity crunch and under central government interference.
    b. The sylvan surroundings of most IITs are turning into concrete jungles, as the students prefer to explore greener pastures abroad to working in the prestigious IITs on a low salary package.
    c. Where the engineering colleges of the west offer 1: 6 faculty student ratio, the IITs cannot even maintain a 1: 12 ratio as senior teachers retire every year and new talent is unwilling to join on a low salary.
    d. The 27% OBC reservation policy of the government is likely to lead to further exacerbation of the already dismal teacher taught ratio and a likely closure of a few IITs.
    e. The efforts of the directors of the IITs to recruit talented teachers from the European Union and the US have given little respite, and have not been eminently successful, though the IITs continue to be the portals of quality education.

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    Quote Originally Posted by apoorv.sharma View Post
    @joyan: post the key for yesterday's passage.

    Meanwhile, here's today's passage:

    The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were—reptiles or birds—are among the questions scientists have puzzled over.
    Check your answers:
    1. D
    2. B
    3. C
    4. B
    5. A
    6. B
    7. A

    @joyan: bang on dude!
    @manjuc/tushar: just one wrong...way to go!
    @pinku_f1: In order to improve your accuracy, try and give yourself more time to read the passage first. See the questions you got wrong and analyze what had you comprehended of the passage when you attempted those particular questions, and then see the correct option, and ask yourself why didn't you mark that one...you'll improve for sure!

    Cheers!

  7. The Following User Says Thank You to apoorv.sharma For This Useful Post:

    pinku_f1 (11-Jun-09)

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    Quote Originally Posted by apoorv.sharma View Post
    Check your answers:
    1. D
    2. B
    3. C
    4. B
    5. A
    6. B
    7. A

    @joyan: bang on dude!
    @manjuc/tushar: just one wrong...way to go!
    @pinku_f1: In order to improve your accuracy, try and give yourself more time to read the passage first. See the questions you got wrong and analyze what had you comprehended of the passage when you attempted those particular questions, and then see the correct option, and ask yourself why didn't you mark that one...you'll improve for sure!

    Cheers!
    Thanks dude...I will certainly work on what u have mentioned...Anywyz Can you post the explanation for the answers .. If u have any

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    Quote Originally Posted by tusharsem View Post
    Here's one from my side :

    No one can deny the fact that the Indian Institute of Technology Madras is one of the most prominent professional colleges in Asia awarding an engineering degree. It is set in a reserve forest and its green lans and beautiful scenery is captivating. A nature lover like William Wordsworth would have written many paeans if he had visited the charming site. It has one of the best pools in Chennai and is immune to the quota crunch. However, for other Indian Institutes of Technology, the quota conundrum continues to have a nightmarish impact on the quality learning. For the country’s seven IITs, including Madras, that have pioneered the country’s brand growth and strength, there seems no respite from the already acute battle to maintain standards of excellence in the face of acute faculty shortage. Where leading foreign technical colleges offer a 1 : 6 faculty student ratio, most IITs just manage to maintain a 1 : 12 ratio, while struggling to cope up with attrition syndrome and find quality faculty. The Dean of IIT Madras, Prof V.G. Idichandy, in a recent interview, admitted that it was hard to maintain even a 1: 14 ratio due the paucity of faculty. Interestingly, not many people today opt for teaching, as the compensatory package stands nowhere in comparison not only to that in the western world, but also to what falls into the kitty of those in India who look for openings in the business world. Moreover, the selection procedure as stipulated by the UGC is stringent. Ironically, the sylvan surroundings of most IITs are fast turning into concrete jungles when students want to explore greener pastures abroad. IIT–Kanpur, which has a 1: 14 faculty student ratio, recently mooted a proposal to hire teachers from the European Union. However, this proposal is presently buried in the jungle of files, as no positive response is forthcoming from the government, though relentless efforts are being made by the Deans and the Directors of the IITs to attract young and talented NRIs serving in foreign universities to work in the Indian Institutes of Technology. The faculty members who attend international conferences and seminars are directed to identify innovative young students willing to teach in India. What a paradoxical situation! The young graduates of IITs are going abroad on a heavy pay package and the Directors of IITs are looking for teachers from abroad. IIT-Bombay Director Misra shakes his head in horror as he recounts the woes of his faculty. IITBombay functions with a teacher student ratio of 1: 12, while an ideal as per the HRD ministry stipulation is 1: 9 ratio. The other alarming fact is that many faculty members retire each year, as the retiring age is not being increased in spite of memos submitted to the government.

    Several senior IIT faculty members opine that teaching in the present set up is a difficult task. With a monthly salary of Rs. 30,000 and a Rs. 500 annual increment for learned professors, it is hardly a wonder that these portals of education should be gasping for quality teachers. It is pertinent to note that an average IIT graduate gets a much better pay package in the job market than drawn by the IIT Director. No wonder, only a sprinkling of students go through the rigorous route of doctorates, fellowships to join IIT as faculty members. Teacher salaries in EU and US are at least 20 to 25 times those of IIT teachers. The lucrative offers from the corporate sector are a lead to faculty shortage in the IITs. The central government has stipulated the salary structure and it is extremely tortuous to recruit faculty from abroad. To avert these crises, some institutes have started offering emeritus positions to its retired faculty. The crisis will further escalate with the implementation of the 27% OBC reservation, as there will be an additional rush of students to all the IITs. More teachers are required to cater to the new intake and the liquidity crunch is hampering the ongoing research work in these IITs.

    In 1990, Illinois Institute of Technology was crumbling; close to insolvency. The school sent out an SOS to its alumni and in five years $270 million were contributed to save the school. Harvard and Princeton have also built multi-million dollar endowments for research and survival. Unfortunately the IIT’s have no US-style Alumni Relations Department. It is the right time for the alumni to donate to their alma mater. Mr. Sarin donated Rs. 1.5 crore, NRI tycoon Mr. Vindo Gupta sent $4 million, Infosys mentor Narayana Murthy has donated Rs. 25 crore to IIT Kanpur. There philanthropic acts will go a long way to save the IITs. Otherwise the future is dismal.

    What does the phrase ‘the sylvan surroundings of most IITs are fast turning into concrete jungles’ mean
    in context of the passage?

    a. The growing pollution in and around IITs.
    b. The shortage of students in IITs.
    c. The shortage of faculty in IITs.
    d. The lack of maintenance of green environment.
    e. The students seeking greener pastures abroad.

    What most easily describes the organization of the passage?

    a. The passage rues the absence of a support mechanism for a cause and discusses why nothing much is expected in view of the presence of certain variables
    b. The author uses a study to put forth his own argument.
    c. The passage paints a dismal picture of the future of certain institutes of excellence and uses evidence to prove the point.
    d. The passage expresses apprehensions based on clinching evidence showing symptoms of a malady.
    e. The author presents various facets of a problem without any conclusion

    The author cities the example of alumni of IIT US in order to

    a. save the IITs from closure and accelerate their pace of research
    b. emphasise the need for two way interactive and mutually beneficial exchange between the alumni and the alma mater
    c. suggest an alternative to tide over the liquidity crunch faced by the institutes
    d. prove that all alumni have a moral responsibility to contribute to the development and survival of their alma mater.
    e. highlight the philanthropic achievements of the alumni in USA.

    What can be best inferred from the passage about the working of Indian institutes of Technology?

    a. The prominent Institutes of Technology are maintaining the standards of excellence though the odds are heavily stacked against them.
    b. The Deans and the Directors of IITs are exhorting the members of the faculty to attend international conferences and seminars and be on the lookout for new talent willing to take the plunge into the field of education.
    c. The young and talented Non Resident Indians employed in foreign universities are being inspired to return to India to work in the IITs.
    d. The Indian Institutes of Technology have started employing superannuated teachers to meet the crisis of growing shortage of teachers.
    e. The IITs are bound to find it difficult to maintain the standards of excellence as the faculty student ratio has declined to 1: 14 with the senior teachers retiring every year and new quota regime of OBC likely to increase the intake of students.

    Which of the following best illustrates the situation that is equivalent to closing of the Indian Institutes of technology?

    a. The IITs are desperately struggling to maintain standards of excellence in spite of liquidity crunch and under central government interference.
    b. The sylvan surroundings of most IITs are turning into concrete jungles, as the students prefer to explore greener pastures abroad to working in the prestigious IITs on a low salary package.
    c. Where the engineering colleges of the west offer 1: 6 faculty student ratio, the IITs cannot even maintain a 1: 12 ratio as senior teachers retire every year and new talent is unwilling to join on a low salary.
    d. The 27% OBC reservation policy of the government is likely to lead to further exacerbation of the already dismal teacher taught ratio and a likely closure of a few IITs.
    e. The efforts of the directors of the IITs to recruit talented teachers from the European Union and the US have given little respite, and have not been eminently successful, though the IITs continue to be the portals of quality education.
    Answers of today's passage from my side:
    1) C
    2) A
    3) C
    4) E
    5) D

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    Quote Originally Posted by pinku_f1 View Post
    Thanks dude...I will certainly work on what u have mentioned...Anywyz Can you post the explanation for the answers .. If u have any
    I dont have the explanations with me, just the answer key. I request all those who post their answers, please also add your explanations in brief (wont take much time )..it would help others if you get a question right.
    Thanks!

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    Quote Originally Posted by pinku_f1 View Post
    Thanks dude...I will certainly work on what u have mentioned...Anywyz Can you post the explanation for the answers .. If u have any
    Thought of posting the explanations which I thought. Apporv posting the explanations will corroborate that :

    1). D) :- The statement in the second paragraph "least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles" seals the choice. Options (A),(B),(C) are either not stated in the passage or are distorted/wrong as per the passage. (E) is true ( given in the passage : "If the pterosaurs walked on all fours" ) but there is no mention about consensus (or lack of it) on this information among scientists regarding this.

    2). B). :- The author clearly states in the last paragraph that "Each hypothesis has its difficulties" and uses words like "wrongly assumes ","seems unlikely ","too strong " to counter the assumptions. Also, rest of the options are totally out of context

    3). C). :- (D),(E) can be eliminated easily. (B) is false. (A) is true but not the way they can be distinguished. The statement "The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds" speaks what is mentioned in (C)

    4). B). :- The passage mentioning Huxley is all about "adaptation" which is the core of (B)

    5). A). :- Applied elimination principle. Rest either false/ or assumption not mentioned in the passage

    6). B) :- Think this is an obvious choice

    7). A):- Had a doubt between (A) and (D). But realised the doubt arised because I tried to associate "longer tails" with "larger wingspan". But passage has no mention of "tails". Instead option A) is more logical as the adaptation choices of animals are governed by environmental surroundings. That one section of scientists believe "high waves" made pterosaurs airborne points to this link.

    Hope this helps. Post if you have any contradictions/doubts

  12. The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to joyan123 For This Useful Post:

    apoorv.sharma (11-Jun-09), pinku_f1 (11-Jun-09)

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    Quote Originally Posted by joyan123 View Post
    Answers of today's passage from my side:
    1) C
    2) A
    3) C
    4) E
    5) D
    Will add the explanations later for this post....

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    Quote Originally Posted by tusharsem View Post
    Here's one from my side :

    [B]No one can deny the fact that the Indian Institute of Technology Madras is one of the most prominent professional colleges in Asia awarding an engineering degree. It is set in a reserve forest and its green lans and beautiful scenery is captivating. A nature lover like William Wordsworth would have written many paeans if he had visited the charming site. It has one of the best pools in Chennai and is immune to the quota crunch. However, for other Indian Institutes of Technology, the quota conundrum continues to have a nightmarish impact on the quality learning. For the country’s seven IITs, including Madras, that have pioneered the country’s brand growth and strength, there seems no respite from the already acute battle to maintain standards of excellence in the face of acute faculty shortage. .
    My answers
    1.C
    2.D
    3.A
    4.E
    5.D

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    Quote Originally Posted by tusharsem View Post
    Here's one from my side :

    [B]No one can deny the fact that the Indian Institute of Technology Madras is one of the most prominent professional colleges in Asia awarding an engineering degree. It is set in a reserve forest and its green lans and beautiful scenery is captivating. A nature lover like William Wordsworth would have written many paeans if he had visited the charming site. It has one of the best pools in Chennai and is immune to the quota crunch. However, for
    Answers for this one : [This was a tricky passage]

    1. c
    2. e
    3. b
    4. a
    5. c

    Explanation :

    1. The phrase ‘under central government interference ‘renders the statement a incorrect. 2 & 5 need not be a situations visualized in the question stem. 4 may have been referred to in the passage, and the first part may also be correct. It is the second part of the statement that renders it incorrect.

    2. The stem of the question is about the working of IITs. So the right answer should also talk of their working.

    3. All the answer options here may be partially correct. But a careful perusal of the paragraph, citing the example, shows that the author’s intention is to refer to a two way mutually beneficial exchange virtually non existent in the case of IITs in India.

    4. Statements b and e can be easily rejected as there is no ‘own argument’ and we cannot say that there is no conclusion. c and d are incorrect as the passage presents the symptoms, not the evidence in support of a point. The passage deplores the present situation due to lack of support, and expects nothing much due to absence of market orientation.

    5. Options a and d are easily ruled out because ‘sylvan surroundings’ are symbolic of the greenery of life and growth. b is obviously incorrect. Though e is stated next to the sentence using the phrase, what is implied and what also matches the central point is c.

    Joyan, Pinku_f1 : Both have just 1 right.

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    How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems? This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions. In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of hardship. Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the 1930’s when most of the unemployed were primary breadwinners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing in the labor market. Increasing affluence, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed, and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably mitigated the consequences of joblessness. Earnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hardship. Among the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level, the overwhelming majority are from multiple-earner, relatively affluent families. Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labor force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an accurate indicator of labor market pathologies.
    Yet there are also many ways our social statistics underestimate the degree of labor-market-related hardship. The unemployment counts exclude the millions of fully employed workers whose wages are so low that their families remain in poverty. Low wages and repeated or prolonged unemployment frequently interact to undermine the capacity for self-support. Since the number experiencing joblessness at some time during the year is several times the number unemployed in any month, those who suffer as a result of forced idleness can equal or exceed average annual unemployment, even though only a minority of the jobless in any month really suffer. For every person counted in the monthly unemployment tallies, there is another working part-time because of the inability to find full-time work, or else outside the labor force but wanting a job. Finally, income transfers in our country have always focused on the elderly, disabled, and dependent, neglecting the needs of the working poor, so that the dramatic expansion of cash and in-kind transfers does not necessarily mean that those failing in the labor market are adequately protected.
    As a result of such contradictory evidence, it is uncertain whether those suffering seriously as a result of labor market problems number in the hundreds of thousands or the tens of millions, and, hence, whether high levels of joblessness can be tolerated or must be countered by job creation and economic stimulus. There is only one area of agreement in this debate—that the existing poverty, employment, and earnings statistics are inadequate for one their primary applications, measuring the consequences of labor market problems.

    1. Which of the following is the principal topic of the passage?
    (A) What causes labor market pathologies that result in suffering
    (B) Why income measures are imprecise in measuring degrees of poverty
    (C) Which of the currently used statistical procedures are the best for estimating the incidence of hardship that is due to unemployment
    (D) Where the areas of agreement are among poverty, employment, and earnings figures
    (E) How social statistics give an unclear picture of the degree of hardship caused by low wages and insufficient employment opportunities

    2. The author uses “labor market problems” in lines 1-2 to refer to which of the following?
    (A) The overall causes of poverty
    (B) Deficiencies in the training of the work force
    (C) Trade relationships among producers of goods
    (D) Shortages of jobs providing adequate income
    (E) Strikes and inadequate supplies of labor

    3. The author contrasts the 1930’s with the present in order to show that
    (A) more people were unemployed in the 1930’s
    (B) unemployment now has less severe effects
    (C) social programs are more needed now
    (D) there now is a greater proportion of elderly and handicapped people among those in poverty
    (E) poverty has increased since the 1930’s

    4. Which of the following proposals best responds to the issues raised by the author?
    (A) Innovative programs using multiple approaches should be set up to reduce the level of unemployment.
    (B) A compromise should be found between the positions of those who view joblessness as an evil greater than economic control and those who hold the opposite view.
    (C) New statistical indices should be developed to measure the degree to which unemployment and inadequately paid employment cause suffering.
    (D) Consideration should be given to the ways in which statistics can act as partial causes of the phenomena that they purport to measure.
    (E) The labor force should be restructured so that it corresponds to the range of job vacancies.

    5. The author’s purpose in citing those who are repeatedly unemployed during a twelve-month period is most probably to show that
    (A) there are several factors that cause the payment of low wages to some members of the labor force
    (B) unemployment statistics can underestimate the hardship resulting from joblessness
    (C) recurrent inadequacies in the labor market can exist and can cause hardships for individual workers
    (D) a majority of those who are jobless at any one time to not suffer severe hardship
    (E) there are fewer individuals who are without jobs at some time during a year than would be expected on the basis of monthly unemployment figures

    6. The author states that the mitigating effect of social programs involving income transfers on the income level of low-income people is often not felt by
    (A) the employed poor
    (B) dependent children in single-earner families
    (C) workers who become disabled
    (D) retired workers
    (E) full-time workers who become unemployed

    7. According to the passage, one factor that causes unemployment and earnings figures to overpredict the amount of economic hardship is the
    (A) recurrence of periods of unemployment for a group of low-wage workers
    (B) possibility that earnings may be received from more than one job per worker
    (C) fact that unemployment counts do not include those who work for low wages and remain poor
    (D) establishment of a system of record-keeping that makes it possible to compile poverty statistics
    (E) prevalence, among low-wage workers and the unemployed, of members of families in which others are employed

    8. The conclusion stated in lines 33-39 about the number of people who suffer as a result of forced idleness depends primarily on the point that
    (A) in times of high unemployment, there are some people who do not remain unemployed for long
    (B) the capacity for self-support depends on receiving moderate-to-high wages
    (C) those in forced idleness include, besides the unemployed, both underemployed part-time workers and those not actively seeking work
    (D) at different times during the year, different people are unemployed
    (E) many of those who are affected by unemployment are dependents of unemployed workers

    9. Which of the following, if true, is the best criticism of the author’s argument concerning why poverty statistics cannot properly be used to show the effects of problems in the labor market?
    (A) A short-term increase in the number of those in poverty can indicate a shortage of jobs because the basic number of those unable to accept employment remains approximately constant.
    (B) For those who are in poverty as a result of joblessness, there are social programs available that provide a minimum standard of living.
    (C) Poverty statistics do not consistently agree with earnings statistics, when each is taken as a measure of hardship resulting from unemployment.
    (D) The elderly and handicapped categories include many who previously were employed in the labor market.
    (E) Since the labor market is global in nature, poor workers in one country are competing with poor workers in another with respect to the level of wages and the existence of jobs.

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    Quote Originally Posted by apoorv.sharma View Post
    How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems? This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions. In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of hardship. Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the 1930’s when most of the unemployed were primary breadwinners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing in the labor market. Increasing affluence, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed, and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably mitigated the consequences of joblessness. Earnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hardship. Among the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level, the overwhelming majority are from multiple-earner, relatively affluent families. Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labor force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an accurate indicator of labor market pathologies.
    Yet there are also many ways our social statistics underestimate the degree of labor-market-related hardship. The unemployment counts exclude the millions of fully employed workers whose wages are so low that their families remain in poverty. Low wages and repeated or prolonged unemployment frequently interact to undermine the capacity for self-support. Since the number experiencing joblessness at some time during the year is several times the number unemployed in any month, those who suffer as a result of forced idleness can equal or exceed average annual unemployment, even though only a minority of the jobless in any month really suffer. For every person counted in the monthly unemployment tallies, there is another working part-time because of the inability to find full-time work, or else outside the labor force but wanting a job. Finally, income transfers in our country have always focused on the elderly, disabled, and dependent, neglecting the needs of the working poor, so that the dramatic expansion of cash and in-kind transfers does not necessarily mean that those failing in the labor market are adequately protected.
    As a result of such contradictory evidence, it is uncertain whether those suffering seriously as a result of labor market problems number in the hundreds of thousands or the tens of millions, and, hence, whether high levels of joblessness can be tolerated or must be countered by job creation and economic stimulus. There is only one area of agreement in this debate—that the existing poverty, employment, and earnings statistics are inadequate for one their primary applications, measuring the consequences of labor market problems.

    1. Which of the following is the principal topic of the passage?
    (A) What causes labor market pathologies that result in suffering
    (B) Why income measures are imprecise in measuring degrees of poverty
    (C) Which of the currently used statistical procedures are the best for estimating the incidence of hardship that is due to unemployment
    (D) Where the areas of agreement are among poverty, employment, and earnings figures
    (E) How social statistics give an unclear picture of the degree of hardship caused by low wages and insufficient employment opportunities

    2. The author uses “labor market problems” in lines 1-2 to refer to which of the following?
    (A) The overall causes of poverty
    (B) Deficiencies in the training of the work force
    (C) Trade relationships among producers of goods
    (D) Shortages of jobs providing adequate income
    (E) Strikes and inadequate supplies of labor

    3. The author contrasts the 1930’s with the present in order to show that
    (A) more people were unemployed in the 1930’s
    (B) unemployment now has less severe effects
    (C) social programs are more needed now
    (D) there now is a greater proportion of elderly and handicapped people among those in poverty
    (E) poverty has increased since the 1930’s

    4. Which of the following proposals best responds to the issues raised by the author?
    (A) Innovative programs using multiple approaches should be set up to reduce the level of unemployment.
    (B) A compromise should be found between the positions of those who view joblessness as an evil greater than economic control and those who hold the opposite view.
    (C) New statistical indices should be developed to measure the degree to which unemployment and inadequately paid employment cause suffering.
    (D) Consideration should be given to the ways in which statistics can act as partial causes of the phenomena that they purport to measure.
    (E) The labor force should be restructured so that it corresponds to the range of job vacancies.

    5. The author’s purpose in citing those who are repeatedly unemployed during a twelve-month period is most probably to show that
    (A) there are several factors that cause the payment of low wages to some members of the labor force
    (B) unemployment statistics can underestimate the hardship resulting from joblessness
    (C) recurrent inadequacies in the labor market can exist and can cause hardships for individual workers
    (D) a majority of those who are jobless at any one time to not suffer severe hardship
    (E) there are fewer individuals who are without jobs at some time during a year than would be expected on the basis of monthly unemployment figures

    6. The author states that the mitigating effect of social programs involving income transfers on the income level of low-income people is often not felt by
    (A) the employed poor
    (B) dependent children in single-earner families
    (C) workers who become disabled
    (D) retired workers
    (E) full-time workers who become unemployed

    7. According to the passage, one factor that causes unemployment and earnings figures to overpredict the amount of economic hardship is the
    (A) recurrence of periods of unemployment for a group of low-wage workers
    (B) possibility that earnings may be received from more than one job per worker
    (C) fact that unemployment counts do not include those who work for low wages and remain poor
    (D) establishment of a system of record-keeping that makes it possible to compile poverty statistics
    (E) prevalence, among low-wage workers and the unemployed, of members of families in which others are employed

    8. The conclusion stated in lines 33-39 about the number of people who suffer as a result of forced idleness depends primarily on the point that
    (A) in times of high unemployment, there are some people who do not remain unemployed for long
    (B) the capacity for self-support depends on receiving moderate-to-high wages
    (C) those in forced idleness include, besides the unemployed, both underemployed part-time workers and those not actively seeking work
    (D) at different times during the year, different people are unemployed
    (E) many of those who are affected by unemployment are dependents of unemployed workers

    9. Which of the following, if true, is the best criticism of the author’s argument concerning why poverty statistics cannot properly be used to show the effects of problems in the labor market?
    (A) A short-term increase in the number of those in poverty can indicate a shortage of jobs because the basic number of those unable to accept employment remains approximately constant.
    (B) For those who are in poverty as a result of joblessness, there are social programs available that provide a minimum standard of living.
    (C) Poverty statistics do not consistently agree with earnings statistics, when each is taken as a measure of hardship resulting from unemployment.
    (D) The elderly and handicapped categories include many who previously were employed in the labor market.
    (E) Since the labor market is global in nature, poor workers in one country are competing with poor workers in another with respect to the level of wages and the existence of jobs.
    My answers for this one:
    1) E
    2) D
    3) B
    4) C
    5) D
    6) A
    7) E
    8) C
    9) C

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    Quote Originally Posted by apoorv.sharma View Post
    How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems? This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions. In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of hardship. Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the 1930’s when most of the unemployed were primary breadwinners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing in the labor market. Increasing affluence, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed, and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably mitigated the consequences of joblessness. Earnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hardship. .
    My answers
    1.E
    2.D
    3.B
    4.C
    5.B
    6.E
    7.E
    8.D
    9.A

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    Quote Originally Posted by apoorv.sharma View Post
    How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems? This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions. In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of hardship. Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the 1930’s when most of the unemployed were primary breadwinners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing in the labor market. Increasing affluence...
    Check your answers:
    1. E
    2. D
    3. B
    4. C
    5. B
    6. A
    7. E
    8. D
    9. A

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    In the eighteenth century, Japan’s feudal overlords, from the shogun to the humblest samurai, found themselves under financial stress. In part, this stress can be attributed to the overlords’ failure to adjust to a rapidly expanding economy, but the stress was also due to factors beyond the overlords’ control. Concentration of the samurai in castle-towns had acted as a stimulus to trade. Commercial efficiency, in turn, had put temptations in the way of buyers. Since most samurai had been reduced to idleness by years of peace, encouraged to engage in scholarship and martial exercises or to perform administrative tasks that took little time, it is not surprising that their tastes and habits grew expensive. Overlords’ income, despite the increase in rice production among their tenant farmers, failed to keep pace with their expenses. Although shortfalls in overlords’ income resulted almost as much from laxity among their tax collectors (the nearly inevitable outcome of hereditary office-holding) as from their higher standards of living, a misfortune like a fire or flood, bringing an increase in expenses or a drop in revenue, could put a domain in debt to the city rice-brokers who handled its finances. Once in debt, neither the individual samurai nor the shogun himself found it easy to recover.
    It was difficult for individual samurai overlords to increase their income because the amount of rice that farmers could be made to pay in taxes was not unlimited, and since the income of Japan’s central government consisted in part of taxes collected by the shogun from his huge domain, the government too was constrained. Therefore, the Tokugawa shoguns began to look to other sources for revenue. Cash profits from government-owned mines were already on the decline because the most easily worked deposits of silver and gold had been exhausted, although debasement of the coinage had compensated for the loss. Opening up new farmland was a possibility, but most of what was suitable had already been exploited and further reclamation was technically unfeasible. Direct taxation of the samurai themselves would be politically dangerous. This left the shoguns only commerce as a potential source of government income.
    Most of the country’s wealth, or so it seemed, was finding its way into the hands of city merchants. It appeared reasonable that they should contribute part of that revenue to ease the shogun’s burden of financing the state. A means of obtaining such revenue was soon found by levying forced loans, known as goyo-kin; although these were not taxes in the strict sense, since they were irregular in timing and arbitrary in amount, they were high in yield. Unfortunately, they pushed up prices. Thus, regrettably, the Tokugawa shoguns’ search for solvency for the government made it increasingly difficult for individual Japanese who lived on fixed stipends to make ends meet.

    1. The passage is most probably an excerpt from
    (A) an economic history of Japan
    (B) the memoirs of a samurai warrior
    (C) a modern novel about eighteenth-century Japan
    (D) an essay contrasting Japanese feudalism with its Western counterpart
    (E) an introduction to a collection of Japanese folktales

    2. Which of the following financial situations is most analogous to the financial situation in which Japan’s Tokugawa shoguns found themselves in the eighteenth century?
    (A) A small business borrows heavily to invest in new equipment, but is able to pay off its debt early when it is awarded a lucrative government contract.
    (B) Fire destroys a small business, but insurance covers the cost of rebuilding.
    (C) A small business is turned down for a loan at a local bank because the owners have no credit history.
    (D) A small business has to struggle to meet operating expenses when its profits decrease.
    (E) A small business is able to cut back sharply on spending through greater commercial efficiency and thereby compensate for a loss of revenue.

    3. Which of the following best describes the attitude of the author toward the samurai discussed in lines 11-16?
    (A) Warmly approving
    (B) Mildly sympathetic
    (C) Bitterly disappointed
    (D) Harshly disdainful
    (E) Profoundly shocked

    4. According to the passage, the major reason for the financial problems experienced by Japan’s feudal overlords in the eighteenth century was that
    (A) spending had outdistanced income
    (B) trade had fallen off
    (C) profits from mining had declined
    (D) the coinage had been sharply debased
    (E) the samurai had concentrated in castle-towns

    5. The passage implies that individual samurai did not find it easy to recover from debt for which of the following reasons?
    (A) Agricultural production had increased.
    (B) Taxes were irregular in timing and arbitrary in amount.
    (C) The Japanese government had failed to adjust to the needs of a changing economy.
    (D) The domains of samurai overlords were becoming smaller and poorer as government revenues increased.
    (E) There was a limit to the amount in taxes that farmers could be made to pay.

    6. The passage suggests that, in eighteenth-century Japan, the office of tax collector
    (A) was a source of personal profit to the officeholder
    (B) was regarded with derision by many Japanese
    (C) remained within families
    (D) existed only in castle-towns
    (E) took up most of the officeholder’s time

    7. Which of the following could best be substituted for the word “This” in line 47 without changing the meaning of the passage?
    (A) The search of Japan’s Tokugawa shoguns for solvency
    (B) The importance of commerce in feudal Japan
    (C) The unfairness of the tax structure in eighteenth century Japan
    (D) The difficulty of increasing government income by other means
    (E) The difficulty experienced by both individual samurai and the shogun himself in extricating themselves from debt

    8. The passage implies that which of the following was the primary reason why the Tokugawa shoguns turned to city merchants for help in financing the state?
    (A) A series of costly wars had depleted the national treasury.
    (B) Most of the country’s wealth appeared to be in city merchants’ hands.
    (C) Japan had suffered a series of economic reversals due to natural disasters such as floods.
    (D) The merchants were already heavily indebted to the shoguns.
    (E) Further reclamation of land would not have been economically advantageous.

    9. According to the passage, the actions of the Tokugawa shoguns in their search for solvency for the government were regrettable because those actions
    (A) raised the cost of living by pushing up prices
    (B) resulted in the exhaustion of the most easily worked deposits of silver and gold
    (C) were far lower in yield than had originally been anticipated
    (D) did not succeed in reducing government spending
    (E) acted as a deterrent to trade

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    In the eighteenth century, Japan’s feudal overlords, from the shogun to the humblest samurai, found themselves under financial stress. In part, this stress can be attributed to the overlords’ failure to adjust to a rapidly expanding economy, but the stress was also due to factors beyond the overlords’ control. Concentration of the samurai in castle-towns had acted as a stimulus to trade. Commercial efficiency, in turn, had put temptations in the way of buyers. Since most samurai had been reduced to idleness by years of peace, encouraged to engage in scholarship and martial exercises or to perform administrative tasks that took little time, it is not surprising that their tastes and habits grew expensive. Overlords’ income, despite the increase in rice production among their tenant farmers, failed to keep pace with their .......................

    My answers:
    1)A
    2)D
    3)B
    4)A
    5)E
    6)C
    7)D
    8)B
    9)A

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    Quote Originally Posted by apoorv.sharma View Post
    Check your answers:
    1. E
    2. D
    3. B
    4. C
    5. B
    6. A
    7. E
    8. D
    9. A
    @apporv
    Can u explain the answer for question 9 ?

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